Why are traders on the floor of the exchange?

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Electronic or scripless tradingsometimes called e-trading or paperless trading is a method of trading securities such as stocksand bondsforeign exchange or financial derivatives electronically.

Information technology is used to bring together buyers and sellers through an electronic trading platform and network to create virtual market places. Electronic trading is in contrast to older floor trading and phone trading and has a number of advantages, but glitches and cancelled trades do still occur. For many years stock exchanges were physical locations where buyers and sellers met and negotiated. Exchange trading would typically happen on the floor of an exchange, where traders broker platform stock trading flooring brightly colored jackets to identify which firm broker platform stock trading flooring worked for would shout and gesticulate at one another — a process known as open outcry or pit trading the exchange floors were often pit-shaped — circular, sloping downwards to the centre, so that the traders could see one another.

With the improvement in communications technology in the late 20th century, the need for a broker platform stock trading flooring location became less important and traders started broker platform stock trading flooring transact from remote locations in what became known as electronic trading.

Set up inNASDAQ was the world's first electronic stock market, though it originally operated as an electronic bulletin board [ citation needed ]rather than offering straight-through processing STP. By investment firms on both the buy side and sell side were increasing their spending broker platform stock trading flooring technology for electronic trading. Traders also increasingly started to rely on algorithms to analyze market conditions and then execute their orders automatically.

The move to electronic trading compared to floor trading continued to increase with many of the major exchanges around the world moving from floor trading to completely electronic trading. While the majority of retail trading in the United States happens over the Internet, retail trading volumes are dwarfed by institutional, inter-dealer and exchange trading.

However, in developing economies, especially in Asia, retail trading constitutes a significant portion of overall trading volume [8]. For instruments which are not exchange-traded e. US treasury bondsthe inter-dealer market substitutes for the exchange. This is where dealers trade directly with one another or through inter-dealer brokers i. They acted as middle-men between dealers such as investment banks.

This type of trading traditionally took place over the phone but brokers moved to offering electronic trading services instead. Similarly, B2C trading traditionally happened over the phone and, while some still does, more brokers are allowing their clients to place orders using electronic systems. Many retail or "discount" brokers e. Charles SchwabE-Trade went online during the late s and most retail stock-broking probably takes place over the web now.

Larger institutional clients, however, will generally place electronic orders via proprietary electronic trading platforms such as Bloomberg TerminalReuters XtraThomson Reuters EikonBondsPro, Thomson TradeWeb or CanDeal which connect institutional clients to several dealersor using their brokers' proprietary software.

For stock trading, the process of connecting counterparties through electronic trading is supported by the Financial Information eXchange FIX Protocol. Used by the vast majority of exchanges and traders, the FIX Protocol is the industry standard for pre-trade messaging and trade execution. While the FIX Protocol was developed for trading stocks, it has been further developed to accommodate commodities, [9] foreign exchange, [10] derivatives, [11] and fixed income [12] trading.

For retail investors, financial services on the web offer great benefits. The primary benefit is the reduced cost of transactions for all concerned as well as the ease and the convenience. Web -driven financial transactions bypass traditional hurdles such as logistics. Exchanges typically develop their own systems sometimes referred to as matching enginesalthough broker platform stock trading flooring an exchange will use another exchange's technology e.

Exchanges and ECNs generally offer two methods of accessing their systems —. From an infrastructure point of view, most exchanges will provide "gateways" which sit on a company's network, acting in a manner similar to a proxyconnecting back to the exchange's central system.

Many brokers develop their own systems, although there are some third-party solutions providers specializing in this area. Some banks will develop their own electronic trading systems in-house, but this broker platform stock trading flooring be costly, especially when they need to connect to many exchanges, ECNs and brokers. There are a number of companies offering solutions in this area.

Many types of algorithmic or automated trading activities can be described as high-frequency trading HFTwhich is a specialized form of algorithmic trading characterized by high turnover and high order-to-trade ratios.

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Investing online , also known as online trading or trading online , is a process by which individual investors and traders buy and sell securities over an electronic network, typically with a brokerage firm. This type of trading and investing has become the norm for individual investors and traders since late s with many brokers offering services via a wide variety of online trading platforms.

Prior to the Internet , investors had to place an order through a stockbroker , in person or via telephone. The brokerage firm then entered the order in their system, which was linked to trading floors and exchanges. In August , K. Investors could now enter orders directly online, or even trade with other investors via electronic communication networks ECN. Some orders entered online are still routed through the broker, allowing agents to approve or monitor the trades.

Online brokers in the US are often referred to as discount brokers but in Europe and Asia many so-called online brokers work with high-net-worth individuals. Their popularity is attributable to the speed and ease of their online order entry, and to fees and commissions significantly lower than those of full service brokerage firms within the US.

Two types of online brokerages have emerged in the US in the mids: Investors who trade through an online brokerage firm are provided with a online trading platform. Included with the platform are tools to track and monitor securities, portfolios and indices , as well as research tools, real-time streaming quotes and up-to-date news releases—all of which are necessary to trade profitably.

Often, more robust research tools are available such as full, in-depth analyst reports and analysis, and customized backtesting and screeners to see how particular investment strategies would have been realized during different historical periods. In all investments, there is a risk of investment fraud.

This risk can increase for online brokers where the investor does not have a personal relationship and the broker may be located in a different jurisdiction.

For this reason some financial regulators warn potential investors to research the online brokers they plan to employ, assuring that those firms are licensed within their state, provincial or national jurisdiction. Informed investors are less likely to fall victim to unlawful securities schemes, such as the so-called "boiler room" scam. This website cautions investors to be wary of internet newsletters, investing blogs, or bulletin boards. Stock manipulators often float false information and "hot tips" on these sites, as part of an effort to affect the price of shares in a particular security.

Investors are also advised to turn to unbiased sources when researching investments. In the US, the U. Online investors typically invest without help from a trained stockbroker or investment adviser , and may not fully understand the potential risks of investing in a particular security. Inexperienced investors are easy prey for stock manipulators and pump and dump schemes often associated with penny stocks. For this reason, many online brokers offer a number of investment tools to educate and inform new investors.

Many online brokers provide tools to help investors research and select potential investments. There are also numerous third party providers of information, such as Yahoo! Other reputable sites provide information on business sectors, news and financial statements of individual companies, and basic tutorials on subjects such as diversification , basic portfolio theory , and the mitigation of risk associated with volatility in the stock market. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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