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Very Short Range system: Igla Close range system: L, Zu anti-aircraft gun Short Range missile: Strela, Akash Long Range missile: Bonds are instruments of debt — typically used by corporates to raise money from investors. Masala bonds have to be lr forex freedom extreme 44 review in the context of Indian corporates raising money from overseas investors.
Before masala bonds, corporates have had to rely on avenues such as external commercial borrowings or ECBs.
The challenge with the likes of ECBs is the entity raising money is faced with a currency risk — they have to be raised and repaid in dollar terms. A year is a long time in forex markets — currencies fluctuate sharply.
Risky for a bond issuing entity, especially one with largely rupee earnings, if issue and repayment are years apart.
Masala bonds are rupee-denominated bonds issued to overseas buyers. With a masala bond, a lr forex freedom extreme 44 review could issue Rs. But as the Indian rupee has limited convertibility, the investors will lend the dollar equivalent of the Rs. After one year, the Indian corporate lr forex freedom extreme 44 review to pay back the dollar equivalent of Rs. The currency risk is with the investor. The purpose of the issue was to fund infrastructure projects in India. This kind of naming has been done before.
By the way, Japanese yen-denominated bonds are called Samurai. Samosa, Ganga, and Peacock were apparently some of the names doing the rounds. The Reserve Bank of India has issued guidelines allowing Indian companies, non-banking finance companies HDFC, India Bulls Housing Finance are examples of such companies and infrastructure investment trusts and real investment trusts investment vehicles that pool money from various lr forex freedom extreme 44 review and invest in infrastructure lr forex freedom extreme 44 review real estate sectors to issue rupee-denominated bond overseas.
Experts say the move to permit masala bonds is an attempt to increase the international status of rupee and is also a step toward full currency convertibility the freedom to convert Indian currency into other internationally accepted currency without any restrictions. The Finance Ministry has cut the withholding tax a tax deducted at source on residents outside the country on interest income of such bonds to 5 per cent from 20 per cent, making it attractive for investors.
Also, capital gains from rupee appreciation are exempted from tax. Globally, there is ample liquidity thanks to lower interest rates in developed markets, but there are very few investment options due to weak economic conditions globally. India is that rare fast-growing large economy, and masala bonds is one way for investors to take advantage of this. These bonds are bought by retail investors as well as big institutions overseas. For corporates, who would be the main issuers, masala bonds will be one other key source of funding apart from banks and local debt markets.
Another ratings firm India Ratings and Research says such bonds would lower the cost of capital over a period of time — the cost remains one of the highest in Asia. This also makes sense given that Indian banks are reluctant to lend to sectors facing weak demand and heavy debt. Investors would need to keenly watch the credibility of the issuer.
Higher the credit rating of a firm, the better would be the appetite for their issues. Since the currency risk is on the investors, they will like the rupee to be stable.
The gross Non-Performing Assets of public sector banks were at six per cent at the end of June, up from 5. According to RBI data, stressed asset, that is gross NPA plus standard restructured advances, as a percentage of gross advances moved up to Public sector banks share a disproportionate burden of these stress. Six sectors that were facing maximum stress are —iron and steel, textile, power, sugar, aluminium and construction.
The Reserve Bank of India RBIin its financial stability report, also cited five sub-sectors that were undergoing maximum stress, which are infrastructure, iron and steel, textiles, mining including coal and aviation. According to the RBI data, these five sub-sectors had 52 per cent of total stressed lr forex freedom extreme 44 review of all commercial banks as of Junewhereas in the case of PSBs it was at 54 per cent.
The lr forex freedom extreme 44 review is also in the process of framing a bankruptcy code, aimed to tackle wilful default and a draft lr forex freedom extreme 44 review was already released.
The forward-looking road map articulates the ASEAN goals and aspirations to realise consolidation, integration and stronger cohesiveness as a community.
Further, with ASEAN as a community, mprovements in transport linkages and infrastructure would help people and businesses move efficiently. It would work more productively across borders, expand market reach and strategically source goods and services. This apart, the people are expected to be better protected against pandemics, natural and human-induced disasters and calamities, transnational crimes and transboundary challenges. Three methods are used depending on the crops and areas to get more yield.
A special plant growing structure wherein the ambient temperature, humidity can be controlled to facilitate the plant growth. Plants will be grown on a raised bed with drip and fertigation method. The climatic limitation can be overcome by this technique. The yield per unit area is very high.
Covering the raised bed with polythene film leaving the space for seedling planting is called mulching.
Before laying the film, drip lines will be installed. Irrigation and fertigation shall be done periodically. Here, the structure is covered by insect proof net, instead lr forex freedom extreme 44 review polythene sheet. Here also, there is better management of pest and diseases. Repo rate is the rate at which the central bank of a country RBI in case of India lends money to commercial banks in the event of any shortfall of funds.
As the race to adapt to climate change quickens, a South African scientist. With more than known varieties in the world, resurrection plants are a unique group of flora that can survive extreme water shortages for years. During a drought, the plant acts like a seed, becoming so dry it appears dead.
But when the skies finally open and the rain pours down, the shrivelled plant bursts back to life, turning green and robust in just a few hours.
Environmentalists fear that more and more of Africa will be reduced to a dust bowl lr forex freedom extreme 44 review global warming, with higher temperatures, reduced water supplies and population growth threatening to trigger worsening famines.
Climate change could reduce maize yields across southern Africa by as much as 30 per cent byaccording to the UN Environment Programme. Ahead of the United Nations conference in Paris at the end of November, countries are facing growing pressure to keep global warming below two degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial Revolution levels by weaning their carbon-hungry societies off fossil fuels. Visual representation of 3D images continuously in order to give a sense of the volume of the object alongwith time is called 4D imaging.
Ultrasound is an example. Visual representation of moving images 4D which are from different time intervals in order to create a time-lapse illustration of a moving object is called 5-D Imaging. Time lapse-videos showing the growth of flowers is an example.
Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum. The goal of hyperspectral imaging is to obtain the spectrum for each pixel in the image of a scene, with the purpose of finding objects, identifying materials, or detecting processes.
India and China have decided to establish a ministerial mechanism that would, for the first time, link the two home ministries, filling a vital gap in the overall institutional architecture of the bilateral ties. Communication lines between the two establishments would also be opened to ensure information flows on aircraft hijacking and hostage situations.
Both sides agreed that the terrorism had now to be combated at the international level, and both lr forex freedom extreme 44 review would be working in that direction. A two-tier structure has been established to steer ties between the Home Ministry and the Ministry of Public Security of China. The topics include law enforcement, cyber crimes, terrorism, trans-border crimes and drug trafficking. The first ministerial meeting of this forum is expected in the first half of The Centre has proposed to set up a National Bureau of Corrosion Control to deal with issues of corrosion, which poses a challenge to various sectors in the country.
The bureau is to be set up as part of the strategic and commercial dialogue India had with the United States and it would be on the lines of Bureau of Energy Efficiency. With 2,97, deaths, India is once again at the top of the list of countries with the highest burden of the two diseases among children under the age of five. Inthese two diseases together were responsible for one in four deaths in children under five, with 15 countries bearing a disproportionate burden.
The report stated that while between andseven nations had made substantial gains in their scores, the gains were minimal in large countries, such as India and Nigeria. Progress is evaluated by the Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea intervention scores, including parameters such as.
Also, in a reflection of the rate of progress over the past few years, it points out that without significant gains in countries like Lr forex freedom extreme 44 review, Nigeria, China and Indonesia with a large number of births annuallythere will be no reduction in the global pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths among children under five years. However, the global study does recognise in India, a strong political commitment to immunise all children in the next five years; increased efforts to monitor data and progress at the district levels; and launch of Mission Indradhanush, aiming to expand immunisation coverage in high-priority districts with large populations of unvaccinated and under-vaccinated children.
The dams in the five participating states with substantial need for rehabilitation and improvements have been included in the project.
Development of appropriate institutional mechanisms for the safe operation and maintenance of all large dams have also been taken up in these states. The project implementation agencies for DRIP would be the owners of dam i. The overall implementation of the project would be coordinated by Central Water Commission.
With installed capacity of 76 MW, Tamil Nadu topped the rooftop solar capacity addition in the country, according to a report of Bridge to India, a global renewable energy consulting firm. After lr forex freedom extreme 44 review some remarkable progress in wind energy, Tamil Nadu is scripting a success story in rooftop solar segment also.
Installed capacity of top ten lr forex freedom extreme 44 review where rooftop solar installations are contributing to their respective power grids:. The President appointed Justice T. He will have a tenure as the 43rd Chief Lr forex freedom extreme 44 review of India till January 3, The government is expected to get around Rs.
If the government attains its target amount from the Coal India stake sale, this will go a long way in meeting the disinvestment target of Rs. The Union Cabinet also approved a slew of international agreements, including:. It provides structured and detailed information about the topic in addition to a list of links to other sites.
The goal is that users would be able to use this information to resolve their query without having to navigate to other sites and assemble the information themselves. The short summary provided in the knowledge graph is often used as a spoken answer in Google Now searches. The commission has noted that the airlines acted in parallel in collusion in fixing the rates and such conduct was found to have resulted in indirectly determining the rates of air cargo transport and thereby in contravention of the provisions of Section 3 1 read with Section 3 3 a of the Act.
The Competition Commission of India CCI was established under the Competition Act, for the administration, implementation and enforcement of the Act, and was duly constituted in March The following are the objectives of the Commission.