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It was in the latter half of the nineteenth century that higher criticism began to be taken seriously. These critics rejected Moses as the writer of option trading documentary hypothesis Pentateuch, arguing instead that the accounts in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy were based on four other sources [writers] written between the 10th and the 6th centuries B.
The letters are the initial to the name of these alleged sources, also known as the Documentary Hypothesis. Source Criticism, a sub-discipline of Higher Criticism, is an attempt by liberal Bible scholars to discover the original sources that the Bible writer s [not Moses] used to pen these five books.
It should be noted option trading documentary hypothesis most scholars who engage in higher criticism start with liberal presuppositions. Liberal Christianity says that Moses did not pen every word from Genesis through Deuteronomy. Option trading documentary hypothesis conclude that this is nothing more than a tradition that originated in the times that the Jews returned from their exile in Babylon in B.
These source critics reason that there was and is a misunderstanding of Deuteronomy In addition, these source critics put forth that the language of Deuteronomy chapters 12—18, as well as the historical and theological context, places the writing and completion of these five books centuries after Moses died. According to these critics, this alleged tradition of Moses being the author of the first five books of our Bible was completely accepted as fact by the time Jesus Christ arrived on the scene in the first-century C.
In addition, at John Thus, for the critic, Jesus simply handed this misunderstood tradition off to first-century Christianity. We have read much in previous chapters thus far about these critical scholars, but it will not hurt to review, before delving option trading documentary hypothesis discrediting their hypothesis. How has such extreme thinking as this Documentary Hypothesis come down to us, going from being a hypothesis to being accepted as law in secular option trading documentary hypothesis and most seminaries?
What is the relationship between a hypothesis, theory, and law? In the physical sciences, there are several steps before a description of a phenomenon becomes law. I would argue that is as far as they made it in following the formula for option trading documentary hypothesis scientific method. True enough, he may have questioned the idea that Moses wrote the option trading documentary hypothesis Torah; however, he chose not to do this in an outward way; he chose to be more subtle in presenting such an idea.
For Ibn Ezra, several verses seemed not to have come from Moses, but one verse stood out above the option trading documentary hypothesis. This will be answered soon enough. Like Francis Bacon before him, he deepened the crack in the acceptance of option trading documentary hypothesis Bible being a source of divine authority. Spinoza presents the notion that the 39 books of the Hebrew Old Testament were set down by none other than the Pharisees.
Moreover, the prophets spoke not by God, being inspired, but of their own accord. Spinoza had no respect for those he deemed fools because of their belief in miracles. Such a option trading documentary hypothesis knows that, with the removal of ignorance, the wonder which forms their only available means for proving and preserving their authority would vanish also.
A miracle, whether a contravention option trading documentary hypothesis, or beyond nature is a mere absurdity. This French Catholic priest accepted Moses as the author for most of the Pentateuch, but he is the first to notice repetition with certain portions that would come to be known as doublets. This theory seemed to carry even more support by duplicate material, as Astruc viewed Genesis chapter one as one creation account and Genesis chapter two as another.
It should be kept in mind that Astruc credited Moses as the writer, but was simply looking for what Moses may have drawn on in penning the Pentateuch. David Hume — was an eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher whose influence on the denial of divine authority, miracles, and prophecy has had a major impact that has reached down to the twenty-first century! Hume has three major pillars that hold up his refutation of divine authority. If a person falls from a high place, he will hit the ground.
If a rock is dropped into the sea, it will sink. Each morning our sun comes option trading documentary hypothesis the horizon and each night it goes down, and so on.
Without a doubt, there are laws of nature that never fail to follow their purpose. Therefore, for Hume, there is nothing that would ever violate the laws of nature.
In addition, there have been many who have lied about so-called miracles, which have been nothing but a sham. For his third pillar, Hume argues that miracles have occurred only in the time periods of ignorance; as the enlightenment of man grew the miraculous diminished. Karl Heinrich Graf —aside option trading documentary hypothesis Julius Wellhausen, was the person we look to most for the modern documentary hypothesis.
Inthe German Bible critic Julius Wellhausen —writing in Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels Prolegomena to the History of Israelpopularized option trading documentary hypothesis ideas of the above scholars that the first five books of the Bible, as well as Joshua, were written from the 9 th century into the 5 th century B. It is argued that this author is perhaps a woman as it is the only one of their presented authors who is not a priest.
Some option trading documentary hypothesis place this author in the southern portion of the Promised Land, Judah. Most higher critics place this author c.
As stated earlier, this author is reckoned a priest, with his lineage option trading documentary hypothesis back to Moses. It is also proffered that he bought this office. Thus they have another author. It is suggested strongly that, in fact, this is the book found in the temple by Hilkiah the high option trading documentary hypothesis and given to King Josiah.
This is because this portion of the Pentateuch usually relates to the priesthood. For instance, things like the sacrifices would be tagged as belonging to this author.
Others put forth that it was written during the exile of seventy years, the Priest s composing this holy portion for the option trading documentary hypothesis who would return from exile, while others say it was written after the exile, about B. With all the focus on Wellhausen and the impetus he has given to the Documentary Hypothesis, one would option trading documentary hypothesis that he had made an enormous, critical investigation of the text, which, in essence, moved him to cosign with his predecessors.
If that is your conclusion, you will have to option trading documentary hypothesis, for it was simply a feeling that something was option trading documentary hypothesis quite right that moved Wellhausen to accept a system of understanding without any evidence whatsoever. In his book Prolegomena to the History of Israel, first published inWellhausen helps his readers to appreciate just how he came about his expressed interest in the Documentary Hypothesis:.
In my early student days I was attracted by the stories of Saul and David, Ahab and Elijah; the discourses of Amos and Isaiah laid strong hold on me, and I read myself well into option trading documentary hypothesis prophetic and historical books of the Old Testament.
Thanks to such aids as were accessible to me, I even considered that I understood them tolerably, but at the same time was troubled with a bad conscience, as if I were beginning with the roof instead of the foundation; for I had no thorough acquaintance with the Law, of which I was accustomed to be told that it was the basis and postulate of the whole literature.
But it was in vain that I looked for the light which was to be shed from this source on the historical and prophetical books. On the contrary, my enjoyment of the latter was marred by the Law; it did not bring them any nearer me, but intruded itself uneasily, like a ghost that makes a noise indeed, option trading documentary hypothesis is not visible and really effects nothing. Even where there were points of contact between it and them, differences also made themselves felt, and I found it impossible to give a candid decision in favour of the priority of the Law.
Dimly I began to perceive that throughout there was between them all the difference that separates two wholly distinct worlds. Yet, so far from attaining clear conceptions, I only fell into deeper confusion, which was worse confounded by the explanations of Ewald in the second volume of history of Israel.
Martin Noth — A liberal twentieth-century German scholar who specialized in the pre-Exilic history of the Jewish people. The first he proposed to be written during the reign of the Judean King Josiah to aid him in cleaning up the false worship going on within Judah. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Cross said the same writer or possibly another goes back to edit this work, to add in the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile to Babylon. I briefly address the Redaction Theory here because of its relationship to the Documentary Hypothesis.
Redaction Criticism is another form of Biblical criticism that intends to investigate the Scriptures and draw conclusions concerning their authorship, historicity, and time of writing. However, the real question is, Do these higher critics have any serious evidence to overturn thousands of years of belief by three major religious groups Jews, Christians, and Muslims that the Pentateuch was written by Moses?
What these critics have are pebbles, each representing minute inferences and implications [circumstantial evidence at best] that they place on one side of a scale.
As unsuspecting readers work their way through the books and articles written by these critics, the scales seem to be tilted all to one side, as if there were no evidence for the other side. Thus, like a jury, many uninformed readers; conclude that there is no alternative but to accept the idea that there are multiple authors for the Pentateuch instead of Moses, who is traditionally held to be the sole author.
Just what impact has the Documentary Hypothesis had on academia? Let us allow R. Rendtorf, Professor Emeritus of the University of Heidelberg, to answer:. Current international study of the Pentateuch presents at first glance a picture of complete unanimity. The overwhelming majority of scholars in almost all countries where a scholarly study of Old Testament is pursued, take the documentary hypothesis as the virtually uncontested point of departure for their work; and their interest in the most precise understanding of the nature and theological purposes of the individual written sources seems undisturbed.
Let us take a moment to look at many of these pebbles and see which side of the scale they are to be placed on. As option trading documentary hypothesis at the outset, we will address the major arguments as a case against the whole. Some of these pebbles are major obstacles for option trading documentary hypothesis Christians. We will address four areas of argumentation from the higher critics: Cassuto, Let us see how they explain this. Different settings, however, require different uses.
This principle holds true throughout the whole of the entire Old Testament. The weakness of claiming multiple authors because of the different names used for God is quite evident when we look at just one small portion of the book of Genesis in the American Standard Version Moreover, let us look at Genesis The author of Genesis may have selected divine names on the basis of theological emphasis rather than dogmatic preference.
Many divine names were probably interchangeable; Baal and Hadad were used interchangeably in the Hadad Tablet from Ugarit,  and similar examples could be cited from Egyptian texts. In fact, we now know that there were many deities in the ancient Near East that had multiple names. As stated above with the Babylonian Creation account, the Enuma Elish, the god Marduk Merodachchief deity of Babylon, also had some 50 different names.
Not only because we can see that ancient writers are no different than modern writers and are able to use different names and titles interchangeably within their work, but they were written on stone, so to speak. If one has one clay tablet that has both a personal name and two different titles for the same king, it would be difficult to argue that there were two or three different authors for the one tablet. Bible scholar Mark F. Rooker has the following to say about the use of Elohim and Yahweh in the Old Testament:.
Moreover, option trading documentary hypothesis is clear that throughout the Old Testament that the occurrence of option trading documentary hypothesis names of God as Elohim or Yahweh is to be attributed to contextual and semantic issues, not the existence of sources. This conclusion is borne out by the fact that the names consistently occur in predictable genre. In the legal and prophetic texts option trading documentary hypothesis name Yahweh always appears, while in wisdom literature the name for God is invariably Elohim.
In narrative literature, which includes much of the Pentateuch, both Yahweh and Elohim are used. Cassuto, 31 Given the understanding of the meaning of these names for God, it is no wonder that the source which contains the name Yahweh would appear to reflect a different theology from a selected group of texts which contained the name Elohim. Let us, on a small scale, do our own analysis of the divine names in the first two chapters of Genesis.
Exactly what is the context of this use? Moving on to Genesis 2: