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Since the late s, a variety of schemes has been proposed to allow payments of services and goods to be effected across computer networks. The arrival of the Internet pushed these schemes by removing many obstacles helping to options binaires watchdog mcommerces using the network of networks. Part of the evolvement results in relationships Business-to-Consumers B2C.
This is now part options binaires watchdog mcommerces the electronic commerce eCommercemeaning to sell goods options binaires watchdog mcommerces services to consumers. The success of electronic commerce is closely related to the success of electronic retail payment instruments suitable for transactions in cyberspace. Another part of this evolution process is the shift of Options binaires watchdog mcommerces B2B relationships of trade companies to electronic on-line marketplaces. The proliferation of digital networks, mobile phones, and handheld wireless devices is a options binaires watchdog mcommerces referring to transactions carried out with the assistance of Internet Communication Technology ICT services.
Smartphones, PDAs, or laptops can be used nowadays to access services available through the Internet. Any electronic payment system able to fulfill the needs of B2B and B2C conforming to mobile commerce mCommerce has the potential to become a very large payment technology. The evolution process has involved a move from the physical transfer of tangible, materialized tokens of value-like coins and bank notes to an exchange of information between parties. The recent availability of ultra-high-speed mobile networks has greatly enhanced the opportunity to use this infrastructure.
Although the shift from physical to virtual payments and the broader availability of flat rates has brought enormous benefits to consumers and merchants; it increases the pressure on payment technology providers to invent user-friendly, secure, and robust Digital Cash based solutions. This is the point where most security payment protocol designs come into options binaires watchdog mcommerces, because and that is not really surprising digital information can easily be copied even in protected applications, if the attacker is able to find a way to capture the embedded secrets stored in hardware or transferred over a telecommunications channel see for example D.
The use of a Hardware Security Module HSM in combination with an algorithmic secure transfer protocol limits this ability by combining physical security with strong cryptography. Integrating security from the very early beginning of the design- cycle is essential.
Basic approaches follow maxims like: The design of payment systems should be done in a way that achieves a maximum of fairness, information from one compromised eWallet an electronic device that consists at least of a secure money purse chip with integrated and external non-volatile storage.
The integrated non-volatile storage is used to store the secret options binaires watchdog mcommerces, the options binaires watchdog mcommerces memory stores electronic Coins and other encrypted objects shouldn't be useful in compromising other eWallets.
What is Digital Cash? Unfortunately, many of the schemes that the popular press frequently refers to as "Digital Cash" are actually not cash for options binaires watchdog mcommerces see Options binaires watchdog mcommerces. DuD Fachbeitrage,pp. A system providing only little more than yet another commercial transaction mechanism by adding a secure transmission capability for credit card numbers over the Internet which is not much of a financial innovation in comparison to Digital Cash.
Most examples of electronic banking do not involve a different form of money, but instead simply represent a different way in accessing traditional financial banking services, extending the supply chain. The terminological confusion found in many publications regarding matters related to Digital Cash, the field of ePayment electronic payment and eMoney electronic money should be explained.
Most of them are using a vocabulary not rigidly defined, originated from the fact that these systems are being designed for execution by use of intelligent hardware like autonomous eWallets on one hand and software-only systems designed for electronic Internet transfers on the other. Such generalization tends to blur the distinction between Digital Cash and electronic banking in general.
One can get easily confused in matters relating to word origins and actual meanings. The following table shows definitions as used in this document.
Electronic Money, Cash or eMoney These are generic definitions for all means of payment in the digital space. Digital Cash or eCash These terms are a slight modification of eMoney mimicking the behavior of physical money.
They are not legal tender, namely, money issued by the state and designated as legal tender for the payment of taxes and other debts, but technically it could declare them an eCurrency. Electronic Currency or eCurrency They always mean eCoins and eBills acting as legal tender legalized by options binaires watchdog mcommerces central bank, comparable to or serving as digital banknote.
To date, such surrogate of pMoney is only theoretical fiction and does not exist in any country. The only thing to make this happen is for a central bank to officially adopt a Digital Cash scheme, so that digital tokens are going hand-in-hand options binaires watchdog mcommerces physical cash, both central bank-issued tokens. In literature of eCommerce options binaires watchdog mcommerces ePayment, special wording serving the specific needs, is often being options binaires watchdog mcommerces within the community.
To clarify their importance and meaning some terms f equently used herein, inter alia include:. To state this in advance, it will be shown below that the system and methods for transferring electronic tokens, in particular when the electronic tokens are electronic coins, allows for using electronic coins in an anonymous way, and ensures that they are transferable free of repudiation to support the ability of sending and receiving money, and that the options binaires watchdog mcommerces exchange can be conducted in a safe way and with good rigidity against misuse.
These factors also apply to traditional cash, which explains it's general acceptance. One of the manifold objectives of this invention, when applying it to the Digital Cash context, is showing how to make the transition to a highly sophisticated secure electronic form of Digital Cash, without sacrificing the unique qualities of physical cash.
Payments for goods or services initiated from an eWallet based mobile phone or smartphone, PDA or any other mobile device are termed mPayment.
Options binaires watchdog mcommerces consistency with the banking industry's public definition there are two kinds of mobile payments:.
Most mobile eWallets are currently expected to be used in combination with a smartphone. As they may be equipped with various types of communication interfaces, a flexible adaptation is desirable to utilize them as communication channel. Figure 1 depicts the available possibilities to set up such connections using different pairing constellations. Short-range wireless or proximity mobile payments are defined as wireless payment operations ranging in a options binaires watchdog mcommerces ad-hoc topology.
Most proximity mobile payments are expected to be made at both, attended Point-of-Sale PoS locations such as storesand unattended locations such options binaires watchdog mcommerces vending machinesusing an existing merchant's payment infrastructure, including local direct peer-to-peer connections between two gadgets with their attached options binaires watchdog mcommerces.
To pay, the user simply brings his mobile eWallet with the other user's eWallet or the contactless payment enabled PoS system to options binaires watchdog mcommerces a few inches, and the transaction occurs. This is the case if someone is shopping in a mall wanting to checkout with selected goods or services at a Point-of-Sale PoS. Excluding the cases with nobody sitting at the cash desk or the customer being the only person waiting for service, the customer himself is in a queue standing with other options binaires watchdog mcommerces waiting for the pay-up.
In these situations, a single eWallet-to-e Wallet enabled payment will be sufficient. This payment model is a penurious one using queues: Multiple clients are trying to pay at a single cash desk by waiting in a queue condition. A good representative of such situation is a payment gate where masses even hundreds or more of transactions options binaires watchdog mcommerces to be processed in a few seconds. Options binaires watchdog mcommerces to the statistics one has to provide enough bandwidth within the collision domain options binaires watchdog mcommerces available eWallet service resources in standby state to satisfy the average demand of the requests and to prevent from deceiving the customers.
Important design aspects are for example the speed of a payment transaction and the number of concurrent payment actions. The operating mode commonly is an ad-hoc network configuration in contrast to an infrastructure-based one to allow for rapid contacts between payment parties.
Mostly, both contracting parties are sojourning in options binaires watchdog mcommerces same room or meeting within a distance of less than 50 meters.
In most cases a range of 2 meters is sufficient. This prevents customers from moving away after having established a pairing and before the termination of the protocol-execution. Remote mobile payments are ideal to be used in markets requiring person-to-person payments and for under-banked consumer and merchant environments. To transfer money, a user simply initiates a P2P Internet connection using his mobile gadget and the counterpart authorizes the transfer.
In contrast to the previous local model, the scope of remote payments is a global one. This payment situation arises if both peers have to connect over long distance. The Internet, mobile radio services, or leased line based networks will be mostly used in such situations. One distinguishing feature between account-based and pre-paid coin systems is the anonymity a token-based system can provide to its users.
In contrast, account-based systems by design need to identify the system users and their transactions. As with identified eMoney, both, off-line and on-line, the bank always can reconstruct the path the cash has taken through the economy. Reasons for anonymity are manifold. Although anonymity is addressed by several payment mechanism schemes, nearly none of them provides this feature satisfactorily see H. Only off-line and anonymous eMoney has the ability to hide the transaction trail if the eMoney is not multiply spent.
In the standard case, the bank can neither determine the identity of the original spender, nor can it reconstruct the travel path. Most existing procedures to provide anonymity are based on digital blind signatures see D. Chaum, "Blind signature systems," in Crypto 83,pp. They offer only conditional anonymity in order to reveal anonymity in case of multiple spending or other fraud cases and furthermore are lacking multi-hop ability, i.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a method for transferring electronic tokens between peer-devices. Another object of the invention is to suggest the design of a transaction protocol that allows for a peer-to-peer transfer of electronic tokens between peer-devices. An additional but optional object is to allow the parties of a transaction to stay unconditionally anonymous in the transaction protocol. Further objects of the invention are related to the design of a tamper-protected semiconductor module usable for transferring electronic tokens between peer-devices.
Another object of the invention is to suggest designs for increasing tamper resistance of a hardware e. This object is independent from the other objects of the invention.
Nevertheless, the suggested tamper-protected hardware may also be usable in hardware for use in the transaction system proposed herein. One of the various aspects of the invention is to suggest a protocol capable to transfer electronic tokens between two tamper-protected semiconductor modules using a peer-to-peer link. The protocol is designed to transfer the electronic tokens without requiring inter-action with a trusted third party.
Hence, the transfer of the electronic tokens can always be regarded as an off-line transaction between two tamper-protected semiconductor modules, for which reason the protocol is also referred an offline transaction protocol. The tamper-protected semiconductor modules may be implemented in peer-devices for example.
In case of a successful transfer of the electronic tokens between the two peer-devices, options binaires watchdog mcommerces. However, in case of an interruption prior to the expected end of the off-line transaction protocol's run e. The compensation procedure may be performed on-line or off-line, respectively. The separation of the fairness reconstruction by means of the compensation procedure from the off-line options binaires watchdog mcommerces protocol for transferring options binaires watchdog mcommerces electronic tokens enables de-facto off-line transactions between two peer- devices via a peer-to-peer link, and ensures delayed fairness to the transaction by means of separate compensation procedures for an incidental dispute resolution.
Accordingly, one embodiment of the invention is related to a method for transferring electronic tokens between two tamper-protected semiconductor modules. The method executes an off-line transaction protocol that is controlling the exchange of protocol messages between the two tamper-protected semiconductor modules including a transfer of electronic tokens between the tamper-protected semiconductor modules via a peer-to-peer link, wherein the off-line transaction protocol further enables delayed-true fairness.
In a more detailed exemplary embodiment of the invention, in case of an interruption prior to the expected end of the protocol-run of the off-line transaction protocol, each tamper-protected semiconductor module autonomously terminates the off-line transaction protocol in either.
In case a termination of the off-line protocol is possible only in an unfair state of a respective tamper- protected semiconductor module, the transaction protocol enables delayed-true fairness by providing a proof of loss of one or more electronic tokens by the respective tamper-protected semiconductor module vis-a-vis a third party.
In one example, the third party is an issuing authority that issued the one or more electronic tokens that have been lost. As mentioned above, the off-line transaction protocol may terminate in an unfair state. For the reconstruction of fairness, it may therefore be advantageous, if the parties of the transaction i.
According to one further aspect of the invention, this proof of loss is provided by means of a so-called electronic document eDoc which can be considered a non-repudiation token to ensure non-repudiability of the transaction.
In one exemplary embodiment of the invention, the transaction protocol messages exchanged by the tamper-protected semiconductor modules during a so-called negotiation phase and a so-called options binaires watchdog mcommerces token transfer phase comprise an electronic document which includes information about the state of the transfer of the electronic tokens and which is part of the proof of loss provided in case the off-line transaction protocol terminates in an unfair state at a respective tamper-protected semiconductor module.
According to another exemplary embodiment, the first initial version of the electronic document is generated within the negotiation phase of the electronic tokens to be transferred in the transaction.